Click here 👆 to get an answer to your question ️ A convex mirror of focal length f (in air) is immersed in a liquid (refractive index=4/3). Refractive index database Use Optical constants of METALS Silver (Ag) Silver is often used as a coating material for broadband mirrors for visible and. 1) A plane mirror is placed on the level bottom of a swimming pool that holds water (n = 1. 33: Acetone: 1. The refractive index of Aluminum is 1. Return to "Telescopes from the Ground Up. A ray of light passes from water into air the refractive index is 0. Set the mirror partway into the water facing the light. The two rays, CY and DM are diverging rays and when extended behind the mirror, they appear to intersect each other at point M'. The quantities and are termed the refractive indices of media 1 and 2, respectively. Loading Unsubscribe from Edunovus? Refractive index of water using convex lens and plane mirror experiment class-12 |. This is an important principle in the field of thin-film optics. To find refractive index of water by using convex lens and plane mirror Vikas education Academy. A very complex dielectric mirror can reflect up to 99. 5, is placed on a layer of liquid placed on top of a plane mirror as shown in the figure. Ammonical silver nitrate is a mild oxidizing agent. The remained of the light (ray 2) is reflected from the silvered surface at point P to the mirror M 2 and back through C to the observer's eye. Show that the mirror formula for spherical mirrors also holds for a plane mirror too. Refractive Indices of Pyrolytic Graphite, Amorphous Carbon, and Flame Soot in the Temperature Range 25 ° to 600°C B. Eye care professionals, such as optometrists and ophthalmologists , can conduct a comprehensive eye exam to determine how to correct refractive errors. Ray Optics 56 power of a lens and its unit. so there is no effect of the refractive index of the medium on the focal length of the spehre. You can find quite a few different designs. When light illuminates a mirror such as this, it is reflected. and refractive indices. depth of 2. The most fundamental equation is termed the mirror formula and is given by the relation:. Step index optical fibres. Below is a table of wavelength and refractive indices of the color of. Thus, the law of refraction predicts that a light-ray always deviates more towards the normal in the optically denser medium: , the medium with the higher refractive index. Question:The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. The rainbows we see in the sky are usually more pastel than the ones this mirror casts. It is equal to 1/k in dioptres, where k is the distance between the far point and either the spectacle plane (spectacle refraction), or the principal point of the eye, or the refracting surface of the reduced eye (ocular refraction), in metres. It is also very common for astigmatism to be concurrent with other refractive errors, like hyperopia or myopia. Diagram of a dielectric mirror. Laser line mirrors are highly efficient reflectors optimized for a specific, narrow wavelength range and are more suitable for higher energy levels. For δ= , one gets a resolution of λ. Practice of Retinoscopy. Place some folded towels or other padding around it, in case it falls over! Replace the mirror in its cell, replace the restraining device(s), then refit the mirror cell to the telescope. For glass and air, which have refractive indices of 1. Refractive index is wavelength-dependant. refractive index, the diffraction-limited resolution given by the Rayleigh criterion is dependent only on the choice of material and the wavelength, even for lossless material and in the refractive limit. Eye care professionals, such as optometrists and ophthalmologists , can conduct a comprehensive eye exam to determine how to correct refractive errors. In Reflection, the wave turns back towards the medium that it originally came from. Derive Lens Maker’s formula for convex surface, when ray travels from a rarer to denser medium. @StarJo - It's cool when things like water and mirrors cause refraction of light into a color spectrum. An SiO2 coating is used to protect the delicate aluminum coating, making it suitable for laboratory and industrial use. Under construction on Mt. For the given values of cr = 60°, O1 = 45", rr, = 1. Mirrors, which have curved surfaces designed to reflect rays, also form images. A characteristic property of dielectric mirrors is that they are optical properties depend substantially on the angle of incidence. Refractive Index Database The table below contains links to refractive index data for common materials. If you need a reflected image on a nearly unbreakable surface, there may be no material more suited to the task than Lexan. real and virtual images real images are always inverted, and can be cast on a screen. A ladybug 7. Both these angles are measured with respect to a line normal to the reflection surface. In this section, we will discuss single refraction for a circular boundary, where a beam of light passes from one medium into another. This means that light shone into the core at an angle greater than the critical angle will Total Internally Reflect at the boundary between the core and the cladding. Find clues for unit for measuring the refractive power of a lens or most any crossword answer or clues for crossword answers. This point is the focus of the mirror. focal length of the mirror is equal to half of the radius of the sphere of the mirror. 180 cm on the other side of mirror, virtual, 10 times bigger an object that is 10 cm tall is placed 37 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 18. Find the location of the image of the insect. Hence, the refractive index is also less than unity. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Spherical mirrors are of two types. Reflection of light on a Plane Mirror Mirror works because it reflects light. We assume the refractive index of air 1. What Is Corneal Refractive Therapy (CRT)? Paragon CRT (Paragon Vision Sciences) is a specific brand of corneal reshaping lenses that has a proprietary lens design and fitting methodology, called corneal refractive therapy (CRT). a higher refractive index, n1) into a less-dense medium (with a lower refractive index, n2), the fraction of the incident beam reflected increases as the angle of incidence rises. Refractive index of a medium is defined as the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to the velocity of light in medium, i. oThe refractive index of benzene at 20 C is 1. For example, if you are facing north, your reflection is facing south. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 66, and the A concave mirror is to form an image of. Refractive index, represented by symbol n, is the velocity of light in vacuum divided by the velocity of light in a medium. Amblyopia — often called lazy eye — is a problem that is common in children. 34(a) and (b) show refraction of a ray in air incident at 60° with the normal to a glass-air and water-air interface, respectively. Refractive and laser eye surgery allow many patients to see better than any other time in their lives. The apparent image is certainly closer to the front wall than the actual image is and would be even closer if the refractive index of the liquid were larger than nwater. Refractive index of medium A is given below; Now we examine the refraction of light from two mediums. Snell’s law is still satisfied when one of the materials has a negative refractive index, but the direction of the light ray is ‘mirror-imaged’ about the normal to the surface: Veselago pointed out that a planar sheet of material with negative refractive index could be used as a lens, if of the proper thickness and material parameter:. As can be seen, the air gap Lr(x) depends on the position x along the mirrors and a maximum interference signal is generated at the position x0 where Lr(x0) is exactly matched to the gap Ls of the sensing interferometer. Abstract: There are two main physical properties needed to fabricate 1D photonic structures and form perfect photonic bandgaps: the quality of the thickness periodicity and the refractive index of their components. Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. 2dm = l Interference pattern moving the mirror by a distance d. Mirrors are usually coated with Aluminum. Newton's idea was to install a flat reflecting mirror into the telescope tube. The Refractive Index - n - of a medium is a measure for how much the velocity of light is reduced inside the medium. This is described by Snell's law of refraction, n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2, where θ 1 and θ 2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n 1 and n 2. M = h'/h = -q/p, where M is magnification, h' is height of image, h is height of object. Take a moment to view the following two demonstrations which show the production of infinite images when two plane mirrors are placed parallel to each other or when three plane mirrors are placed in an equilateral triangle. The diamond with refractive index of 2. I don't know which one will be best for me. [ Refractive index of medium X = 1. To find Refractive Indices of Water And Turpentine Oil using a plane mirror, a equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle. A medium is a substance like water, air, or glass. All persons capable of seeing the image must sight along a line of sight directed towards the precise image location. M = h'/h = -q/p, where M is magnification, h' is height of image, h is height of object. The first is to measure the critical angle of the medium. This test tells your eye doctor exactly what prescription you need in your glasses or. Then, since the insertion of the glass plate increased the optical path length by 2(n–1)t, and the mirror motion decreased it by 2d, 2d must equal 2(n–1)t, so the refractive index n of the plate can be calculated from Nλ = 2d = 2(n–1)t. A converging equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index 1. What kind of mirrors are used in. The average of the two values gives the. Get NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Physics - Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments. 5, is placed on a layer of liquid placed on top of a plane mirror as shown in the figure. In the same way that the Law of Reflection is the basic tool we use to develop the theory of mirrors, Snell's Law is the basic tool that we use to develop the theory of lenses. No pure mirror refracts. If the total deviation in the path of the rays reflected from the two mirrors be 300°, then what is the number of images formed? (a) 30 (b) 15 (c) 11 (d) 5. The two major telescopes are refractive and reflective. 34, and this lens has a refractive index of 1. 00000: Air at STP: 1. The adjustable mirror is created by rotating a pan of mercury. 4-meter honeycomb mirrors on a common mount (binocular), gives an equivalent collecting area of a single 11. A symmetric biconvex lens of radius of curvature R and made of glass of refractive index 1. When more than one plane mirror is used, multiple images are formed. The mirror's smooth reflective glass surface creates a virtual image of the observer from the incident light, which is reflected directly into the observer's eyes. It covers, rather, the geometric optics of first-year students, whom it will either help or confuse yet further, though I hope the former. A 10 mm long awl pin is placed vertically in front of a concave mirror. Page 1 of 2 - Scattering in Refractive vs. refractive definition: causing, caused by, or connected with light or sound changing direction or separating when it…. An observer above the water. In second case, it is immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1. Imagine a mirror surface, which is perfectly flat, polished and reflecting. The most fundamental equation is termed the mirror formula and is given by the relation:. rn = the refractive index of the medium that light is passing into. NOA81 is recommended for applications that require extra toughness or speed in curing. The refractive index of water is 1. Water droplets in the atmosphere act like prisms when they bend, or refract, light and create a rainbow. 34(a) and (b) show refraction of a ray in air incident at 60° with the normal to a glass-air and water-air interface, respectively. 33 and refractive indices for various kinds of glass vary from about n = 1. A transparent material, such as glass or water, can actually reflect light better than any mirror. Refractive Indices of Pyrolytic Graphite, Amorphous Carbon, and Flame Soot in the Temperature Range 25 ° to 600°C B. A star appear yellow. Light- Reflection and Refraction-NCERT Solutions. 5 m tall, standing 4m from a vertical mirror as shown. (b) A sample, whose thickness is T and the group refractive index is ng, is placed in front of the ﬁxed mirror. Convex lenses are thicker at the middle. Note that in the figure. The refractive index of diamond is 2. The difficulty is for visible and IR wavelengths the refractive index is a “complex” number, having a real and imaginary part ( n + ik ). plane mirror. Geometrical optics has to do with the principles that govern the image-forming properties of lenses, mirrors, and other devices that make use of light. We find the amount of refraction by using the refractive indexes of the mediums. Primary mirror was made incorrectly and had spherical aberration. An acrylic sheet can be purchased and cut into 3"x5" strips for a cost of approximately $2 per mirror. What is the refractive power R of the lens in dioptres A R 2 dpt B R 5 dpt C R from PHYSICS 1021 at Western University. We also verified the validity of this method using the traditional spherical mirror and thin-lens Gaussian equations. To view an object in any type of mirror, a person must sight along a line at the image of the object. The shift in the direction of the radio waves, when it enters medium with different density, is known as refraction. It is well-known that tantalum oxide, which is widely used as a high-refractive-index material in dielectric mirrors, crystallizes and loses much of its transmissivity at about 700°C. the refractive index of air with the air cell in the uncompensated leg. This is about how much the light would be refracted going from air into another substance. (c) In solar furnace concave mirror is used as a reflector, it concentrates sun light at a point where the temperature increases sharply to 180°C ï¿½ 200°C. Metal mirrors are used when high reflection in a wide spectral range is necessary. That makes them unstable, so they throw out new photons of light that travel back out of the mirror towards you. The cornea is reshaped to allow light to focus properly on the retina. The questions are about reflection, refraction, critical angle, lenses, reflectors, light rays propagating through different mediums, refractive index of materials,. Just as for spherical mirrors, the first method is graphical , and the second analytical. Extendable LED flashlight with magnetic ends and inspection mirror. If the radius of the two curved surfaces is the same and equal to 4 cm, what is the focal length of the lens. Practice of Retinoscopy. All lenses bend and refract rays of light. Refractive index of medium A is given below; Now we examine the refraction of light from two mediums. 5, which means that light travels at 1 / 1. APPARATUS: A convex lens, an optical needle, a plane mirror, a clamp stand, a spherometer, a plumb line, metre scale, water and turpentine. A concave mirror has a radius of curvature of 34. doc - 6 - 3. We assume the refractive index of air 1. A concave mirror will have a positive focal length. First look at picture and then follow the steps one by one. For astronomical telescopes, finder mirrors and collimating objectives If there is any VAT tax that happens during import in the buyer's country, it should be paid by the buyer. 5 Refractive index is given by, μ = speed of light in vacuumspeed of light in the medium∴ Speed of light in glass= speed of light in vaccumμg = 3. Refraction. Mirrors of this shape also accomplish the goal of bending light together, except that they do it by reflecting the light instead of bending it as it passes through (like lenses do). A refractive index is the comparison of the speed of light traveling through a vacuum with its See full answer below. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a. Law of refraction In general, n 1 sin u 1 = n 2 sin u 2 Material Refractive index Glass 1. Be careful, though! Some surfaces are shiny because we polish them and not because they look that way naturally. The ray then travels a distance d before reflecting from the second mirror. ) ((a) What is the angular magnification when this lens forms a (virtual) image at - ? How far from the object should the lens be held? ((b). Using the image to the right, the core is made of flint glass (nflint = 1. (Feel free to edit if any). Thus the refractive index is greater for violet light than for red light ( violet light is refracted more violently ). Calculate refractive index of the kerosene with respect to water. 42 ) compare to speed of light in vacuum C = 3 × 10 8 m s – 1. It was invented during the 1680s by Isaac Newton. Because of this use, dielectric mirrors are often called laser mirrors. Presbyopia, in the absence of any other refractive error, can sometimes be treated with over-the-counter reading glasses. That makes them unstable, so they throw out new photons of light that travel back out of the mirror towards you. 1^@ Using the following refractive indices Air =1. Dean alone is a mirrorball in a dark room. And we call it a virtual image because the book really isn't there. The R1 and R2 are the radius of curvature of the 2 lenses. Refraction occurs as light passes from one medium to another only when there is a difference in the index of refraction between the two materials. Review Sheet-Final Exam. All persons capable of seeing the image must sight along a line of sight directed towards the precise image location. What is its focal length? 3. Please note that not all materials have index values over the entire 200-2000nm range. I can't wear glasses to do this as they would be in the way. A concave mirror will have a positive focal length. Light is a very complex phenomenon, but in many situations its behavior can be understood with a simple model based on rays and wave fronts. The refractive index also depends on the wavelength (colour) of the light ray. CBSE Class 10 th Chapter, Light: Reflection and Refraction comes under the topic Natural Phenomena which carries major marks in exam. The main difference between mirror and lens is that a mirror works by reflecting light, whereas a lens works by refracting light. 1° angle with. Find the refractive index of diamond w. The law of reflection, as it applies to the mirror, does not depend on the index of refraction of the. oBoth the wave speed and the wavelength do change. As can be seen, the air gap Lr(x) depends on the position x along the mirrors and a maximum interference signal is generated at the position x0 where Lr(x0) is exactly matched to the gap Ls of the sensing interferometer. , do not abbreviate refractive index as R. 33, which means that the light is not bent as much when it enters water-because it is not slowed as much. In effect, the mirror is playing throw and catch with you using photons of light as the balls!. Smooth, shiny surfaces such as mirrors and polished metals. He needs people to shine. Light- Reflection and Refraction-NCERT Solutions. (Feel free to edit if any). These telescopes improved the before used refracting telescopes by giving a clearer picture. The two major telescopes are refractive and reflective. Reflection of light may be specular (that is, mirror-like) or diffuse (that is, not retaining the image, only the energy) depending on the nature of the interface. Presbyopia, in the absence of any other refractive error, can sometimes be treated with over-the-counter reading glasses. Compute the angle of refraction of this light in the glass. Be sure that your face must be clearly visible for at least 15 seconds giving your permission in clear words for publishing your video on the youtube channel “M Asif Physics” Regards and Best. The cornea is reshaped to allow light to focus properly on the retina. 33 and kerosene is 1. It means that the speed of light in glass is 1. I'm going on a cruise soon and I'm considering a telescope to set on my balcony. Short Answer Type Questions : - Q. Double refraction can be observed by comparing two materials, glass and calcite. This is called prime focal length photography and the photo from the shorter focal length scope will show a wider field of view, regardless of the aperture or design of the telescopes. We see the world around us because of the way our eyes bend (refract) light. A small fish floats motionless 7. If i is the angle of incidence of a ray in vacuum (angle between the incoming ray and the perpendicular to the surface of a medium, called the normal) and r is the angle of refraction (angle between the ray in the medium and the normal), the refractive index n. A refractive index variation within an optical component leads to a deformation of the wavefront passing through the glass piece, according to the following formula: ∆s = ⋅ ∆ d n. An RC has a hyperbolic primary and a hyperbolic secondary mirror. Refractive errors are just one potential cause of blurred vision, so it is important for your child to have an examination right away if they are experiencing symptoms. 5, is placed on a layer of liquid placed on top of a plane mirror as shown in the figure. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Its main goal is to detect epithelial irregularities and stromal abnormalities, evaluate corneal astigmatism, refractive stability or undetected corneal diseases. The dioptric power (K) of the ametropia of the eye. Where is the image located? Question 4. A glass plate having parallel faces and a refractive index of 1. 44, the refractive power is not as strong as in the cornea. Program to maintain refractive index database. The distance between the lens or mirror surface and the focal point of parallel rays is the focal length of the mirror or lens. Explanation. Generally, fibers doped/undoped SiO2. A concave mirror is a part of sphere of radius 40 cm. An SiO2 coating is used to protect the delicate aluminum coating, making it suitable for laboratory and industrial use. Refractive index of. 42 times faster in vacuum than in diamond. All reflections on the path from the object to the objective are eliminated in this way. For example, typical soda-lime glass has a refractive index of 1. The weight and balance of the frame is important for comfort as. Refractive index of diamond with respect to glass is 1. What is the position of the object and what kind of mirror is it? 68. Refraction definition, the change of direction of a ray of light, sound, heat, or the like, in passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its wave velocity is different. A 5 cm tall object is placed perpendicular to the principal axis of a convex lens of focal length 20 cm. Though also amongst the most correctable, many Americans have uncorrected refractive errors. (b) moves away from the lens with an uniform accleration. Hello everyone ! I hope this is the correct place to ask. This finite conjugate mirror-based configuration provides excellent resolution, and can typically be used interchangeably with traditional refractive microscope objectives. Two mirrors are placed at a 90° angle to each other. How does the focal length of the lens change when red light is replaced by blue light? (1m). There are quite a few physics and engineering factors need to consider when building a powerful telescope. The index of refraction for the ordinary ray is independent of direction. Where$\mu_2$is the refractive index of the lens, and$\mu_1\$ is the refractive index of the medium. Unformatted text preview: Exercises and Problems 541. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror Section A:- 1. Take distance of closer side of block as 1 cm from the mirror. Mirrors, which have curved surfaces designed to reflect rays, also form images. what is a refractive index? 2. Reflective prisms are used in binoculars. If refractive index of the material of convex lens is less than that of water,. The reflected beam (R) travels to mirror M 2, where it is reflected. Answers for unit for measuring the refractive power of a lens crossword clue. (b) A sample, whose thickness is T and the group refractive index is ng, is placed in front of the ﬁxed mirror. Material: Index: Vacuum: 1. Even our eyes depend upon this bending of light. (Feel free to edit if any). com offer the best practice material. Pro Optics 500mm f6. It is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres (1/metres). Refractive definition is - having power to refract. Hence, to obtain an erect image of an object from a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm, the object must be placed anywhere between the pole and the focus. FREE Vray Tutorial - Render glass and liquid  It's like when you're in between 2 mirrors facing each other, your reflection will be reflected in infinity. Please note that not all materials have index values over the entire 200-2000nm range. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror Section A:- 1. IndiaMART would like to help you find the best suppliers for your requirement. In this article, we combine slot waveguide with loop mirror to devise a compact loop-mirror-based slot waveguide (LMSW) scheme and analyze its refractive index sensing properties by assuming the loop is immersed in ambient medium, e. Features that may be added to the Reflectance Calculator (depending upon demand) include graded layers, graded interfaces, roughness, superlattices,. Manufacturers have not found a way to put a wavefront refraction into eyeglasses and contact lenses yet. What is the refractive index? It is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of the light in given medium. average absorption length is 100 mm! average travel length to lose orientation is 1. The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is a constant, for the light of a given colour and for the given pair of media. (b) Convex mirror is used in side/rear view mirror of a vehicle because convex mirrors give a virtual, erect, and diminished image of the objects placed in front of them and have a wide field of view. The distance from x2 to x3 is the optical thickness of the sample, OT = ngT. 23 × 10 8 ms −1 (= 3 × 10 8 ms −1 /2. Set the mirror partway into the water facing the light. Chromatic aberration, also known as "color fringing" or "purple fringing", is a common optical problem that occurs when a lens is either unable to bring all wavelengths of color to the same focal plane, and/or when wavelengths of color are focused at different positions in the focal plane. These questions may be used to practice for the SAT physics test. Q6 : A prism is made of glass of unknown refractive index. Crown glass is a soda-lime-silica composite. And (contrary to at least one posted answer) you’re correct to ask about refractive index, even though we’re not discussing the process of refraction. Mirrors: R = -2f. Manifest Refraction: A manifest refraction is the most traditional way of measuring one's refractive. This would seem to imply that high frequency electromagnetic waves can propagate through a plasma with a velocity which is greater than the velocity of light in a vacuum. 0, what is the refractive index of glass? What is if you have an object 2. Mirrors are usually coated with Aluminum. A surface can be made partially retroreflective by depositing a layer of tiny refractive spheres on it or by creating small pyramid like structures. Its main goal is to detect epithelial irregularities and stromal abnormalities, evaluate corneal astigmatism, refractive stability or undetected corneal diseases. [ 1140 ] 278. Infinity corrected reflective objectives can be used in imaging applications with the addition of a tube lens and have the added flexibility of introducing beam manipulation. Long telephoto lenses present a dilemma for most photographers. mirrors, operating in transmission. The media most commonly used in scrying are reflective, refractive, translucent, or luminescent surfaces or objects such as crystals, stones, or glass in various shapes such as crystal balls, mirrors, reflective black surfaces such as obsidian, water surfaces, fire, or smoke, but there is no special limitation on the preferences or prejudices of the scryer; some may stare into pitch dark. Refractometers are used to measure the refractive index of a pure substance or mixture. Sunglass lens treatments increase visibility and comfort. Instead, they use mirrors to focus the light together. This happens when the light rays strike the surface of the water in such a way that it reflects back into the water. Refraction of Light To further our understanding of light and the rainbow, we now consider what happens to light as it travels through water. If the refractive index of the material of the lens be 1. You can calculate the focal power/focal length of a single refracting curved surface with the formula $p=\frac{n_R-n_L}{R}=\frac{1}{f}$ With curvature radius R and left and right refractive indices nL and nR. Solve both equations relative to v m s V m s v 0. ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Physics – Refraction of Light ICSE SolutionsSelina ICSE Solutions APlusTopper. In plane mirrors, we use the laws of reflection while drawing the image of the. Return to Topics List TITLE: Concave and Convex Mirrors and Lenses Presented to grade level 5. (Feel free to edit if any). refractive index definition: index of refraction A property of a material that changes the speed of light, computed as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light through the material. If the ethyl acetate collected in the forerun had a refractive index of 1. 33), predict the new angle of minimum deviation of a parallel beam of light. The nonlinearity of the refractive index of optical media in the terahertz spectral range Текст научной статьи по специальности «Физика» S. Edmund Optics® manufactures a wide range of precision parabolic, spherical, and flat mirrors with a number of different substrate materials. NCERT solutions class 12 physics chapter 9 ray optics and optical instruments are provided here to help the students clear their doubts. The experiment described in this project is an effective and simple method of measuring the refractive index of any liquid (transparent) using a convex lens and plane mirror. Mirrors are in the business of reflecting light. Free PDF Download - Best collection of CBSE topper Notes, Important Questions, Sample papers and NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Physics Light- Reflection and Refraction. What is the location of its image in relation to the mirror and what are its characteristics. The primary refractive errors are nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. When the two refractive indices are equal (n(1) = n(2)), then the light is passed through without refraction.